Introduction to (Teaching/Learning about) Digital Libraries
This tutorial will provide a thorough and deep introduction to the DL field, introducing and building upon a firm theoretical foundation (starting with “5S”: Streams, Structures,
Spaces, Scenarios, Societies), giving careful definitions and explanations of all the key parts of a “minimal digital library”, and expanding from that basis to cover key DL issues, illustrated with a well-chosen set of case studies.
Attendees will receive a first draft copy of a new book under development by the co-presenters, with tentative title “Foundations for Information Systems: Digital Libraries and the 5S Framework”, based in part on ideas explored in Dr. Gonçalves' dissertation.
Goals are to:
Information Life Cycle, and precisely specifying popular indicators
The presenters are:
Description / topical outline:
This tutorial will be based on the new book being prepared by the co-presenters, which will be well-along by the time of the conference. We plan for all the figures in the book to be done, and those will be used to illustrate most of the ideas of the tutorial. The tentative book outline is as follows:
1. Motivation, Synopsis
Part 1 – The `Ss'
2. Streams: Text, Images, Audio, Video
3.1 Digital Objects and Metadata
3.2 Knowledge Structures
4. Spaces: Retrieval Models, User interfaces and Visualization
5. Scenarios: Scenario-Based Design, Events, Services
Part 2 – Higher Level DL Constructs
9. Catalogs: OPACs, etc.
11. Systems (Greenstone, Fedora, Eprints, Dspace, Kepler)
Part 3 – DL Case Studies
12. NDLTD, NCSTRL, CSTC, NSDL, CITIDEL, AmericanSouth, ETANA, ...
Target audience, including level of experience:
Be able to:
(Introductory, intermediate, advanced levels could all benefit.)
To conduct a comprehensive evaluation of a digital library requires a "triangulation" approach whereby multiple models, procedures, and tools are applied. Conducting valid evaluations of digital libraries in a timely and efficient manner is the focus of this tutorial. Why is evaluation of digital libraries so important? Each year sees the introduction of more and more digital libraries promoted as valuable resources for education and other needs. Yet systematic evaluation of the implementation and efficacy of these digital library systems is often lacking.
This tutorial is specifically designed to establish evaluation as a key strategy throughout the design, development, and implementation of digital libraries at all levels of education. A decision-oriented model to the evaluation of digital libraries will be the focus of the tutorial. Within this model, methods used include: service evaluation, usability evaluation, information retrieval, biometrics evaluation, transaction log analysis survey methods, interviews and focus groups, observations, and experimental methods. Participants will be provided with a range of resources including an online evaluation toolkit.
Participants in this tutorial will learn how to implement models and procedures for evaluating digital libraries at all levels of education. The tutorial includes presentations with actual case studies that are focused on a variety of digital library evaluation strategies. Tutorial participants will learn to develop, implement, and report specific plans, strategies, and tools for a decision-oriented approach to the evaluation of digital libraries. Key evaluation strategies emphasized in the tutorial include:
Anyone involved in the development, implementation, or use of digital libraries.
After attending this tutorial, the participants will be able to perform the following tasks:
Thomas C. Reeves, Ph.D.,
Dr. Susan Buhr
Dr. Lecia Barker
Part 1: Structure and use in knowledge-based assistance to users
This introductory tutorial is intended for anyone concerned with subject access to digital libraries. It provides a bridge by presenting methods of subject access as treated in an information studies program for those coming to digital libraries from other fields. It will elucidate through examples the conceptual and vocabulary problems users face when searching digital libraries. It will then show how a well-structured thesaurus / ontology can be used as the knowledge base for an interface that can assist users with search topic clarification (for example through browsing well-structured hierarchies and guided facet analysis) and with finding good search terms (through query term mapping and query term expansion — synonyms and hierarchic inclusion). It will touch on cross-database and cross-language searching as natural extensions of these functions. It will also mention the use of more richly structured ontologies, including Semantic Web applications. The tutorial will cover the thesaurus structure needed to support these functions: Concept-term relationships for vocabulary control and synonym expansion, conceptual structure (semantic analysis, facets, and hierarchy) for topic clarification and hierarchic query term expansion). It will introduce a few sample thesauri and some thesaurus supported digital libraries and Web sites to illustrate these principles.
Part 2: Design, evaluation, and development
This tutorial is intended for people who have a basic familiarity with the function and structure of thesauri and ontologies. It will introduce criteria for the design and evaluation of thesauri and ontologies and then deal with methods and tools for their development: Locating sources; collecting concepts, terms. and relationships to reuse existing knowledge; developing and refining thesaurus/ontology structure; software and database structure for the development and maintenance of thesauri and ontologies; collaborative development of thesauri and ontologies; developing crosswalks / mappings between thesauri/ontologies. In summing up, the tutorial will address the question of the resources needed to develop and maintain a thesaurus or ontology.
This tutorial will cover a set of Standards or de facto Standards that can play a role in the design and development of Digital Library applications. The Standards that will be discussed are the ISO MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration, the ISO MPEG-21 Digital Item Identification, the ISO MPEG-21 Digital Item Processing, the Open Archives Protocol for Metadata Harvesting, the Internet Archive ARC file format, the NISO OpenURL Framework for Context-Sensitive Services, and the proposed info URI scheme. The tutorial will discuss these Standards by illustrating how they have been used in the context of the aDORe Digital Object repository. aDORe  has been designed and implemented for ingesting, storing, and accessing a vast collection of Digital Objects at the Research Library of the Los Alamos National Laboratory. Since aDORe is not a product, the tutorial is not a product advertisement. Rather, it is an opportunity for designers and developers to learn about Standards that can help addressing real-life challenges in DL design and development, and help increase interoperability across systems. The presenters are actively involved in all of the standardization efforts that are discussed.
Using MPEG-21 DID to represent Digital Objects
The tutorial examines the use of the MPEG-21 Digital Item Declaration  (ISO/IEC 21000-2) to represent Digital Objects as XML-based MPEG-21 DIDL documents.
Using MPEG-21 DII to identify Digital Objects
The tutorial examines the use of the MPEG-21 Digital Item Identification  (ISO/IEC 21000-2) to convey the identifier(s) of a Digital Object, and its constituent datastreams.
Using MPEG-21 DIP to process Digital Objects
The tutorial examines the use of the MPEG-21 Digital Item Processing Standard  (ISO/IEC 21000-10) to facilitate the delivery of various disseminations of Digital Objects.
Using OAI-PMH to harvest resources represented as Digital Objects
The tutorial examines how digital resources, not just metadata about resources, can be harvested using the Open Archives Initiative Protocol for Metadata Harvesting (OAI-PMH)  .
Using Internet Archive ARC files to store constituent datastreams of a Digital Object
The tutorial examines how constituent datastreams of the Digital Object can be provided by reference and physically stored in Internet Archive ARC files  .
Using info URI to facilitate the referencing of information assets under the URI allocation
The tutorial examines the use of the info URI scheme  , proposed to allow referencing by means of URIs those resources that have identifiers in public namespaces but have no representation within the URI allocation.
Using the OpenURL Framework to convey Context-Sensitive dissemination requests
The tutorial examines the use of the NISO OpenURL Standard  , which provides a generic framework for the delivery of Context-Sensitive services pertaining to resources referenced in a networked environment.
Herbert Van de Sompel
As the field of digital libraries matures and new systems and standards develop, the ability to interoperate between systems becomes paramount. This tutorial gives a practical introduction to many recent standards and de facto standards for interoperability, and illustrates them using open source digital library software—including online demonstrations of interoperation issues and solutions. Core standards that are discussed include Dublin Core, OAI-PMH, METS, and MODS. We use interoperation between Greenstone and DSpace as a motivating case study.
For those demonstrations that involve Greenstone, attendees who wish to may bring their laptops, install Greenstone from a CD-ROM that we will provide, along with various sample files, and follow along with the demonstrations on their own machine.
To set the context we briefly overview the traditional library standards MARC and Z39-50. Then we focus on Dublin Core and consider how crosswalk files are built in practice to map MARC metadata to Dublin Core, a form readily supported by digital library systems. Dublin Core variants will be discussed, including national extensions and the qualified Dublin Core standard, and the LOM standard for educational metadata. The recent MODS standard from the Library of Congress will be introduced, along with some practical difficulties that its very general structure raises. All of these will be illustrated, and demonstrated online, in the application context of importing and exporting collections from and to different standard representations using open-source digital library software.
We then proceed to discuss OAI-PMH, and practical issues of ingesting collections and serving them using standard digital library software. OAIPMHis based on metadata harvesting, and although metadata records may contain a link to the resource to which they refer this is beyond the scope of the protocol. Nevertheless, informal conventions can often be exploited to access the document's full content, allowing a practical digital library to form richer collections—again, this will be supported by actual implementations and demonstrations.
The METS standard uses a meta-description approach to describe what constitutes a “work” in a digital library. Although very flexible, this has the disadvantage that different systems may use different, and logically incompatible, structures. The notion of METS “profiles” helps to define the dialect of METS that particular systems use, and we show how open source digital library systems can utilize general XSLT modules to ingest foreign METS profiles.
As an example, we discuss METS-level transfer of collections between a standard METS implementation and Greenstone. We also discuss options for bridging between DSpace and Greenstone, and demonstrate alternative approaches.
The tutorial is designed for those who want to learn about digital library standards and interoperability in the context of actual digital library software and digital library collections. Interoperability issues that seem abstract when discussed in isolation become immediate and concrete when set in the context of particular practical problems.
The tutorial is intended for digital library students, researchers, and practitioners who are interested in practical issues of interoperability. It will also be useful for those seeking to further their knowledge of what existing open source digital library software can do and how to work with them.
Participants will receive a handout that includes PowerPoint slides for the tutorial
In addition, participants who wish to will receive a copy of the material for the Greenstone tutorial, which includes a CD-ROM containing the Greenstone software, full documentation, and sample collections.
David Bainbridge and Ian H. Witten
Ian H. Witten, Department of Computer Science, University of Waikato